the megalithic society the mother culture?
The ancient astronaut
hypothesis in today's culture
Delivered at the
Ancient Astronaut World Conference, Orlando, Thursday, August 7, 1997
the first months of this year, English archaeologist Aubrey Burl
stated that according to his two decades long research, Stonehenge
was probably built by French immigrants, probably coming from
Brittany, and not by “Englishmen”. This caused moral
and particularly chauvinistic outrage in English scientific circles,
one person even attacking Burl, stating that it was denigrating
to state the French had built this as the British could most certainly
have built it as well. According to this logic, every house in
the world is built by British people as the British people are
known to be able to build houses.
the same time, my fellow lecturer Alan Alford published an article
in which he restated certain facts and ideas about Stonehenge.
The builders of Stonehenge exhibited a remarkable knowledge of
astronomy. The rectangle formed by the four Station Stones marks
an exact alignment to the eight key points of the 18.6 year cycle
of the Moon. This feature can only occur at the latitude of Stonehenge.
This knowledge might have been incorporated into the landscape
as early as 8000 BC, when the earliest construction on Stonehenge
– but not as we know it today – began. More interestingly,
archaeologist John North in a recent study on the monument, stated
that the Avenue, a two mile long earthen causeway that connects
the site to the river Avon, was, in 3180 BC, aligned to Sirius.
Professor Gerald Hawkins has stated that the Avenue of the Dead
in Teotihuacan is aligned on a Sirius-Pleiades axis.
because of its enormous tourist success, can be said to be the
main focus of the “megalithic era”, even though its
design is strangely “un-megalithic”. The nearby Avebury,
except for its gigantic scale, is more typical of this “trend”.
Here, we are confronted with large stones standing in a circle.
Nearby are dolmens and the impressive Silbury Hill, the largest
man-made hill in Europe. Its construction is estimated to have
taken about 20 years and must have involved several thousands
The area surrounding Silbury Hill, the standing stones and dolmens
of Avebury make up one vast complex. English researcher Paul Devereux
has called this a “symbolic landscape”, in which man-made
structures have been constructed in such a manner that they perfectly
blend in with the natural landscape, becoming a symbiosis of Man
and Nature. Certain researchers, such as David Percy and the American
David Myers, have gone even further. When people like Walter Hain,
DiPietro and Molenaar and Richard Hoagland brought international
media-attention to certain features on Mars, whom they believed
to be man-made, Percy and Myers believed they had found a scale-model
of these Martian man-made structures on Earth: the area around
Stonehenge and Avebury was a scale-model of the Martian monuments,
the megalithic monuments perfectly echoing the presumed man-made
structures on Mars. This is probably the strangest approach to
the megalithic mystery. Though Erich von Däniken in one of
his more recent books argued for a high-technology intelligence
behind the design of certain of these megaliths, Percy and Myers
went way beyond this and actually conclude that whoever build
the monuments in the English countryside knew precisely what could
be found on Mars.
their research is, of course, impressive, we still know too little
about what is there, on Mars, to guarantee their theory is either
correct or false. What is known is that Stonehenge and Avebury
form an integral relationship with each other, one that is often
not explained or taken up by archaeologists. The Belgian historian
Marcel Mestdagh believed that one vital aspect of the Stonehenge-Avebury
complex had been overlooked: a perfectly curved road that connected
the two sites, and which extends to the east of both sites. In
all, the road makes a perfect oval, with the two sites situated
on the circumference of this oval. Before Mestdagh, about the
only researcher who discovered a relationship between the two
monuments was Alfred Watkins, who believed that a “ley-line”
existed between the two sites. Watkins was the discoverer –
or the inventor, whatever side you wish to stand on in the big
ley-debate – of ley lines.
Mestdagh believed his discovery would prove to be very important.
When he measured the dimensions of this oval road, he discovered
that they represented a scale model – on the scale 1/10
– of similar oval networks he had found in France. More
importantly, Mestdagh had been able to link these oval systems
in France with the megalithic civilization. He argued that rather
than discarded building monuments across wide areas of Western
Europe, the megalithic monuments revealed an underlying coherence,
which was in the form of massive ovals.
his newly found oval can be found another interesting site: Woodhenge.
Woodhenge is not merely situated inside this vast megalithic complex;
in fact, when one continues the Avenue of Stonehenge, we end up
Woodhenge is a series of concentric ovals along which were once
placed wooden poles. Historians and archaeologists have always
assumed that these are examples of how the ancients depicted the
sun. But this seems to be a feeble explanation, for Woodhenge
doesn’t look anything whatsoever like someone trying to
depict the sun. It is obvious there is some stellar relationship
associated with this system, which some archaeologists have now
accepted. But Mestdagh also realized that Woodhenge was a perfect
depiction of the ovals he had discovered in France: concentric
rings around a sacred centre – the capital?
discovery of this oval network in France happened because of his
interest in the Viking invasions that occurred in the 10th century
AD. Viking ships left Scandinavia, attacked English villages and
afterwards made their way to the European continent, where a similar
warfare occurred. But Mestdagh believed he had seen an aspect
in their way of travelling that no-one had ever noticed before.
It appeared as if they made wide sweeps across the English country,
zooming in on something as they progressed. Eventually, they reached
Nottingham and then suddenly left England. On the European continent,
they began to make similar wide sweeps, zooming in on the city
of Sens. Sens, some 150 kilometres south-east of Paris, was at
that time a very important city. In Celtic times, it was the territory
of the Senones – the Elders, the most influential tribe.
Afterwards, it was the place of the Archbishop’s seat. It
seems that throughout history, until the Middle Ages, Sens was
always regarded as the religious capital of France. Even the Vikings
seemed most impressed as Sens was the only city they did not sack
and loiter. Instead, they waited outside the city for the inhabitants
The Vikings seemed to have deemed Sens important; and it did seem
to be the goal of their travels. Could it be that Sens was their
mythical Walhalla? For when the Vikings left Scandinavia, their
own reason for going on their long and arduous travels was not
just because of “overpopulation”; it was also to find
the location of their Walhalla, which according to their legends
was somewhere to the Southwest.
figuring out how the Vikings moved about the countryside, Mestdagh
realized that they had encountered an old and long forgotten system
of roads. This system was interlaced with a network of megalithic
stones. It was known that the Vikings were intimately aware of
megaliths, what they stood for and how they were used, much more
so than their contemporaries in Western Europe. Unfortunately,
very little of their knowledge has come down into our hands. It
seemed that the Vikings were able to use this old road system
to make their way to Sens. For Mestdagh realized that all these
roads zoomed in on Sens. Sens seemed to be the axis, with all
the roads the spokes of a wheel.
Taking his research even further, he realized that this network
of roads and megaliths was placed upon vast concentric ovals,
with Sens at its centre. These ovals were today quite often nothing
more than roads, but his on-site research learned that once, enormous
ditches had been located there – and that often, these could
still be traced in the landscape. As they were made of sand, their
integrity had slowly degenerated over the ca. 3000 years they
had no longer been used. Their construction further revealed that
they were double ditches. In the centre, a depression had in the
past probably contained water: these were canals, which were connected
to natural rivers, some of these rivers having been incorporated
into the network of canals.
as the centre of the megalithic world might seem odd. For today,
the megaliths in Brittany, with places such as Carnac, are far
better known. Still, this is a misconception, for which the tourist
industry should be partly blamed. In the 1870s, a French scientist
was asked to make an index of all the megaliths that could still
be found in France. His report clearly showed that by far the
biggest concentration of megaliths could be found in and around
Sens. Though today most of these have disappeared, because of
the ever increasing grasp of our modern age, until the beginning
of this century, the area around Sens was literally littered with
purpose could these have served? Marcel Mestdagh himself believed
it served as a perfect system of defence against any possible
invaders, who had to cross huge canals, some measuring 180 metres
wide. However, of perhaps specific interest to this audience,
he also noted that the sheer size of these ovals, filled with
water, would make them highly visible from outer space. Their
perfect oval shape would also make sure that any intelligent being
or probe passing by would know these ovals could not be a natural
Interestingly, there have been people in recent history that pondered
the idea as to how Earth would be able to attract the attention
of such “passing aliens”. The German mathematician
Carl Friedrich Gauss, in the 1820s, believed planting pine trees
in Siberia would be the ideal solution. Planting these trees in
quadrangular, triangular and other mathematical forms would surely
attract the aliens’ attention? Some twenty years later,
Joseph von Littrow, believed that a twenty mile long ditch in
the Sahara desert would be the solution. If it were filled with
kerosene and set ablaze at night, it would beacon any alien visitor.
Perhaps unintentionally, the megalithic civilization in France
seems to have entered a far more modern, practical and lasting
“call” to any potential ancient astronaut.
it would seem to be rather simplistic to suppose that anyone would
go through such efforts, efforts that lasted about two millennia
to complete, merely if one wanted to attract the attention of
a possible ancient astronaut passing by our planet. Dutch researcher
Wim Zitman, who has privately made tremendous breakthroughs in
Egyptological research, noted that the dimensions of this civilization
expressed numbers that are related to the star Sirius. He believes
that the ancients had worked with the notion that time was equal
to distance – a concept that is essentially correct as time
and space are identical – and that when measuring specific
distances of ancient monuments, etc., you will find numbers that
are relevant in astronomy and astrology, of which the most important
aspects were incorporated into myth and legend, as those numbers
were relevant to the gods and goddesses. This, he argues strongly,
helped the ancients in observing the sky and astronomical events.
Hence the proverb: “as above, so below.”
research into this civilisation has actually gone even deeper
into the past, beyond the megalithic civilization. In the 1930s,
Frenchman Xavier Guichard published his life-study into the place
name “Eleusis”. There is such a city in both Greece
and Egypt. The Greek city is the most famous, as it is the home
of the Eleusian mysteries. In mythology, we also have the “Eleusian
fields”, which are intimately connected to the Afterlife.
Guichard published his findings in a book called Eleusis Alesia,
a study on the origins of European civilization. Published in
1936, it had a print run of 500 copies, of which several were
lost. Earlier this year, André Douzet was able to locate
a copy of this book in the library of Lyons, the second largest
in France. My friend was able to tell me that no-one had loaned
out the book for the past twenty years.
These are the conclusions that Guichard reached: all places that
were called Alesia (or a name closely related), had been given
this name in prehistoric times. Not a single place had been given
such a name in more recent times. He believed that the name this
derived from an Indo-European root, meaning “a meeting point
to where people travelled”. The majority of these sites
could be found in France, where there were more than 400. But,
as mentioned, the name occurred as far away as Greece and Egypt,
but also in Poland and Spain. Guichard was unable to find such
names in Britain, which suggest that these cities might go back
to the time of the last Ice Age, when Britain was covered with
thick sheets of ice. Guichard himself spoke of “prehistoric”
like Mestdagh, made it an issue to visit most sites figuring in
his research in person. He discovered they had two characteristic
features: they were on hills overlooking rivers and were built
around a man-made well of salt or mineral water. He also believed
that all the sites lay on lines radiating like the spokes of a
wheel from the town of Alaise, in eastern France. This is an echo
of what Mestdagh discovered regarding Sens. Guichard believed
that 24 lines, equally spaced radiating lines, plus four lines
based on the sunrise/sunset at the two equinoxes and the summer
and winter solstices, touched every site. This was a total of
28 lines, which could have a lunar connection. Intriguingly, a
play of numbers, starting from 28 (which is two times 14, a number
connected to dying gods such as Osiris and Jesus), gives numbers
like 56, 64 and 72, all of them featuring prominently in sites
such as Stonehenge, the megalithic civilization and other mythology.
Of course, we can do a lot with numbers (which is, after all,
what they were designed for in the first place), but it is interesting
that certain key numbers keep coming back. Particularly, these
numbers always have direct astronomical significance.
some occasions, we have hinted at possible evidence suggesting
an intimate relationship between Egypt and the megalithic civilization.
There could be one as, historically, the two were contemporaries.
Fernand Niel recorded the finding of small blue beads in a Wessex
burial ground, discovered on close examination to have been made
in Egypt. W.Y. Evans-Wentz noted in 1911 at the very beginning
of his “The Fairy Faith in Celtic Countries” that
plainly there had to be some significant connection between Brittany
and Egypt – and this evidence goes far beyond the wordplay
that is often heard about Carnac (Brittany) and Karnak (Egypt).
since Mankind became worthy of that name (and this is at least
100,000 years), we find traces of mining industries. Particularly,
red ochre was often mined and afterwards used in funerary ceremonies.
The corpse of the deceased was painted with this red ochre. Evidence
seems to suggest that the red ochre had to represent blood; the
body as such would be “born again” in the Afterlife,
in a similar manner as the fetus is born in this world.
In Egyptian mythology, the place to the Afterlife was represented
as an island in the west, and was an enclosed oval formed by the
body of Nut, surmounted by Osiris holding aloft the Solar Disk.
As Bruce Rux, author of “Architects of the Underworld”,
stated: “It may be of interest that the Elysian Fields […],
the Sekhet-hetep (Field of Offerings), was famous as a place intersected
As Letorneau noted in 1893 in the “Bulletin de la Société
d’Anthropologie”, “the builders of our megalithic
monuments came from the South, and were related to the races of
North Africa.” His colleague Sergi recorded finding the
sign of the ankh and other hieroglyphic signs on French dolmens.
Professor J. Morris Jones confirmed the suggestion of Sir John
Rhys that Celtic languages preserved Egyptian Hamitic syntax:
“The pre-Aryan idioms which still live in Welsh and Irish
were derived from a language allied to Egyptian and the Berber
In 1996, Zitman made some extraordinary discoveries, of which
he has asked me not to tell too much. He hopes to publish his
findings in the next few years. What I can say is that his material
involves astonishing new evidence regarding our forefathers’
obsession with that stars, an unknown but vitally important lost
civilization in the Sahara, one that opens up links between Sumer,
Egypt and the megalithic civilization.
years ago, in Bern, after a day on which Robert Bauval, myself
and fellow speaker Hartwig Hausdorf had lectured on mysteries
of the past and had stressed the importance of the stars in all
of our apparently unrelated research, one delegate came forward
and stated that for him, a door had been opened.
I believe this is indeed the case. I believe that the megalithic
civilization was instrumental in creating and propagating certain
knowledge about things we are only now beginning to realize. Whereas
today’s main focus lies in Egypt, I feel we should also
look towards the megalithic civilization, Stonehenge, Mestdagh’s
research and Wim Zitman’s research into this. I wholeheartedly
believe the megalithic civilization will unravel certain enigmas
that the Great Pyramid and all the wonders of Egypt and Sumer
combined will not be able to solve.